This is a presentation paper for 2013 EAFAE Seminar at Gwangmyeong City Lifelong Learning Center, Korea on 13th September, 2013. The theme of the Seminar is ‘Citizen Empowerment for Creative Learning City’. EAFAE is East Asia Forum for Adult Education. It is a network for research, practice and policy renovation in adult education field. I amended this paper a little for 2014 Year book of Social Education Certificated Course of Hosei University, February in 2015.
In this paper I analyzed the complicated and contradicted policy history of social education (adult education) in Japan, both of local and national governments, with some practical experiences I heard from some prominent social education staff. I also introduced in it new resident movements. They are protecting the right to learn in some local cities through fighting against and negotiating with each educational board and local government for keeping Kominkans as public democratic social education institutions. I also introduced in it that JAPSE (Japan Association for Promotion of Social Education), which is a member of ICAE and of which I am a vice president, tried to support these movements through a workshop of the National Study Conference of Social Education. We JAPSE have continued to have this conference every summer from 1961. We also have it this summer.